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Clade’s CO2 ground source heat pumps help you to have the perfect control over the temperature of your building whilst at the same time significantly reducing your carbon emissions. Look at our sustainable ground source heat pump range. We supply ground source heat pumps for commercial, agriculture, residential, manufacturing, and industrial projects.



These heat pumps are bespoke to each and every installation so that we optimise the size of the heat exchangers for the flow and temperatures at both the evaporators and condensers. Using r600a or CO2, we’ll select the refrigerant based on the temperature profiles, for the lowest climate impact with GWPs of 3 and 1 respectively. Available up to 400KW in a single unit for r600a, larger for CO2, which keeps the hydrocarbon gas charge at a manageable level they can be multiplexed together for higher duties.

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To give our heat pumps customers complete peace of mind. Following installation, commissioning and a 6 month run-in period the actual performance will be assessed against predicted performance. If the heat pump does not meet the guaranteed performance we will refund the cost of the heat pump and remove it from site.


A ground source heat pump extracts low-temperature solar energy that is stored in the ground or water. If you are looking for a heating system for your home that uses renewable energy, this is one of the most effective systems that you can install. It works by harnessing the low-temperature energy and converting it into a temperature that heats your water and provides warmth for the building. Ground source heat pumps do this by using pipework that is buried in the ground, compressing the energy into a higher temperature. It is one of the most effective renewable heating systems that you can install at a property. A ground source heat pump will provide the building with 100% of its heating and hot water needs throughout an entire year – it is a genuine, effective alternative to traditional fossil fuel heating systems.

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At Clade, we have a comprehensive CO2 ground source heat pump service. At every stage of the process, our expert team provides extensive support and guidance. The energy-efficient systems are designed to the highest quality manufacturing standards, we provide an expert installation process, and on-going maintenance. Our ethos is to be an industry-leader in the UK, helping people make the change to green heating and cooling. Our ground source heat pump systems are available for myriad sectors, helping businesses reduce their carbon footprint through the installation of ultra-low carbon, efficient, and future-proof heating systems that change the way a building utilises renewable energy.


A ground source heat pump from Clade is designed for high performance and efficiency in both small and large properties.


Our expert installation team will install your new ground source heat pump with minimal disruption to your property and daily life.


The Clade team offers on-going maintenance for your ground source heat pump, including regular surveys and any needed repairs.


Our ground source heat pumps are engineered and manufactured to the highest standards, using the best materials for optimal long-term performance.


Our support services include commissioning engineer attendance, 24/7 service engineering support and access to Clade’s technical helpdesk during the products’ warranty period and beyond.


With its internal Research & Development team based at Clade’s Technology Hub in Leeds the company is available to advise its customers on the latest legislative changes.


There are quite a few amazing benefits to switching your power source to the highly efficient and low carbon ground source heat pump. The major incentive is, of course, that the building that you install a heat pump in will immediately benefit from lower carbon emissions. As business owners and homeowners, we are all looking for ways to reduce our carbon footprint and this is a sure-fire way to do so.

Alongside this, you’ll experience a much-improved quality of air. Ground source heat pumps are affordable to install, they are efficient, and also compatible with other renewable technologies that you might already have installed or are planning to install. When you consider these benefits and the expert advice and professional guidance from a prestigious company such as Clade, it is hard to see any other choice than to make the switch today.



A ground source heat pump can be used for a variety of applications. You might be under the preconception that a renewable energy source like a heat pump is only available for installation in new build properties. This is not the truth. Both new and existing properties can reap the benefits of affordable, efficient, low-carbon options for heating.

A ground source heat pump can be installed in new build homes, existing homes, schools, holiday cottages, listed buildings, in both rural and urban locations. Once you realise that there is an affordable low-carbon alternative out there for any property type and location, it opens up a whole host of possibilities for a homeowner or business owner seeking ways to future-proof a building and lower the carbon footprint of the property.


A ground source heat pump works through a process of absorbing the natural heat from the ground and transferring it into a higher temperature that can be used to provide heat and hot water to a building. It is a low-carbon, energy efficient heating system. The heat pump is installed inside a building and is powered by electricity. The pump is connected to ground collectors – a series of pipes that are underground.

Cold fluid is circulated throughout this pipe network, absorbing the surrounding energy that can be found in rock, soil, lakes, and streams. A compressor within the heat pump then takes the fluid and increases the temperature before passing it through the heat exchanger to heat hot water cylinders, radiators, and other heating systems within the building.

The Thermodynamic Properties of co2



These tried and true ground source heat pumps have been around for over 50 years. This established technology effectively uses natural heat. These closed-loop systems harness the power of solar radiation. Sun radiation beams down and heats the earth, then stores this heat. These efficient pumps extract this heat via a ground heat exchange loop to tap into these naturally replenishable heat stores. The extracted heat is powerful enough to heat buildings, provide hot water and more.

A mixture of water and antifreeze is circulated around a loop pipe called a ground loop. This will be buried in a garden or lake. The powerful solar heat stored in the ground or lake is absorbed into the fluid and then passes through an intelligent heat exchanger into the heat pump. Because the heat stored in the ground or lake remains at a consistent temperature under the surface, the heat pump can be effectively used throughout the year, including during Winter.

The ground loop length can be tailored to accommodate the size of your home and the heat load you require. Typically, longer loops can draw more heat from the ground. However, these need more space to be buried in. In circumstances where there’s not enough space, a vertical borehole can be drilled as an alternative.


  • Depending on which fuel you’re replacing, this energy source could lower your home’s carbon emissions.
  • They may lower your fuel bills. This is particularly true if you currently replace conventional electric heating.
  • You may be eligible for payments through the government’s Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).
  • With this system, there are no fuel deliveries required.
  • These ground-source heat pumps are more energy efficient than air-source heat pumps.
  • The heat pumps are used to deliver heat at lower temperatures over longer periods, intelligently and efficiently conserving and maintaining heat flow.
  • Requires minimal maintenance.


Just like closed-loop systems, these water source heat pumps operate by efficiently extracting thermal from a water source close to the property which requires heating. The thermal energy is collected and converted into heat and hot water. An adequate body of water close by is required for water source heat pumps to function. This makes them ideal for homeowners who have a lake, river, stream or borehole close by.

Water flows through the pump and the heat is extracted by the open-loop system installed and then discharged back to its source. This makes them super efficient — more efficient than closed-loop pumps. However, there are additional regulations to consider from either the Environment Agency for England and Wales or the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). You’ll need to gain consent from either of these bodies to install and use one of these systems. This is because these systems actively pull water into the system for operation, and the water needs to be clean, safe and sufficient for the system to draw and filter the water to and fro the main water source.


  • Provides a reliable supply of water and domestic hot water heating.
  • Environmentally friendly.
  • No need for fuel deliveries.
  • May lower your fuel bills. This is especially true if you currently replace oil or conventional electric heating.
  • In general, these systems are more efficient than closed-loop.
  • You may be eligible for payments through the government’s Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).
  • Depending on which fuel you’re replacing, this energy source could lower your home’s carbon emissions.



Ground source heat pump boreholes extract heat energy from rock. They’re vertical ground arrays or collectors used to extract heat energy from rock to a ground source heat pump. They effectively save space, minimising any disruption in heat pump installation projects. Typically only 150mm width of garden space is required per borehole. The depths of boreholes generally range from 60m-200m.

They work by collecting solar energy stored in the surface soil that dissipates through rock layers. This provides a stable and sustainable heat source. During installation, a U-shaped straight pipe is inserted into the borehole and connected through a trench to the ground source heat pump. The surrounding space is backfilled with a thermal grout to ensure thermal conductivity from the ground to the borehole pipe.

Ground source heat pump boreholes are generally used for large commercial projects, district heating schemes and even smaller sites where space saving is a priority. They also prove a great solution for when there’s insufficient space for horizontal arrays such as slinky pipes in trenches. One borehole is typically required per property. The ground source heat pump circulates heat transfer fluid through the U-pipe.

Boreholes are more expensive than slinky pipes. This is due to additional preparation and drilling costs. However, boreholes are becoming economically viable through Shared Group Loop Array schemes for multiple residential properties, large commercial projects and any site with heat loads above 100 kW. Reduced mobilisation costs for the drilling rig, on-site scalable efficiency and the degree of diversification applied to save money in the long run.


  • Boreholes can prove a great long-term investment
  • Works well for both residential and commercial use
  • They increase property value.
  • Easy maintenance.
  • They save money in the long run.
  • The water supply is uninterruptible.


Slinky pipes, or slinkies, collect heat from surface soil. They do this roughly 1.2m below the ground. The soil continuously gains and replenishes most of its heat from solar energy. From this, they’re able to effectively maintain a consistent temperature of between 8-12°C year-round. Soil was the first heat source used to work with ground source heat pumps, and continues to be a reliable source for heat pumps. This makes Slinkies continuously viable and naturally efficient heating.

Slinkies work by extracting heat through pipeworks from surface soil buried in trenches. This pipework is between fine layers of sand to ensure optimal contact with the ground for maximum heat extraction. In another trench header pipe work connects the slinky to the ground source heat pump by a manifold. Global and water are pumped around the pipework which absorbs energy stored in the ground and effectively transfers thesis energy back to the heat pump. The pipe is able to extract heat from the earth year-round and can last for a lifetime — up to 100 years.

Slinkies are very effective and easy to install. The ground array required is sized appropriately to meet the building’s required heat load. For every 60m of pipe, about 1 kW of energy is typically absorbed from the ground. They’re the most common method of all ground array collectors used for individual property projects.


  • Only a small amount of digging is required.
  • Quick and relatively painless installation.
  • Requires less land than some other methods.
  • Saves on initial installation costs.
  • Works well for individual property projects.


Ground source heat pumps boast high efficiency due to the fact that they emit no emissions. As a genuine, effective, low-carbon alternative to fossil fuel heating systems there are few better options open to property owners. Poor air quality accounts for many deaths each year and with the help of a low-carbon heating system you could reduce the emissions linked to your property.

A ground source heat pump does not create particulates, Sulphur Oxide (SOx) or Nitrogen Oxide (NOx). On top of that, the greater the contribution of solar and wind power systems to the electrical grid, the lower the carbon content of electricity. This should mean that over time, ground source heat pumps become even less carbon intensive.

The Heat Pump Effect

Clade Website Flow Chart


Clade is the UKs leading manufacturer of natural refrigerant heat pumps. With significant R&D, field trials and a proven deployed portfolio of over 500 natural refrigerant appliances there are no other UK manufacturers that come close to our expertise and experience.

Operating on a national basis from our green manufacturing Technology Centre in Leeds and our Head Office in Bristol, which has achieved CEEQUAL status and the internationally recognised BREEAM Excellent standard, we design, manufacture, supply and maintain heat pumps and refrigeration around the world.


“Over the past year TRIOS and Clade Engineering Solutions have worked closely together in delivering service to a range of retail and non-retail customers. Clade has proven to be a reliable partner and demonstrated its ability to react quickly and efficiently to customer requests and problems. Through system usage and great communication Clade has rapidly evolved as a partner of choice to TRIOS. The fact that Clade has both service and installation capabilities has given TRIOS confidence that we can rely on them in every situation, where our customers have a refrigeration or mechanical problem. Clade repeatedly demonstrates its customer focused credentials and continues to give great focus and service to TRIOS and our customers.”

Jeff Alden – Managing Director, Trios Group

Wm. Morrison Supermarkets Plc

“Clade have completed new installations on large stores, and refurbishment work within our main estate, and have many more planned in the future.

Their communication, efficiency and can do attitude make them a key strategic partner in our future within both M-Local and main estate. The key to their success with Morrisons is their transparency, and honesty. Nothing is hidden, and no conversations are off limits, they, as a team, are willing to bring new ideas to the table to make efficiencies, and also accept learnings from other teams to improve themselves.

I have absolutely no qualms in recommending them for any work, and hope that you consider them as the added benefit they can bring is invaluable.”

Tom Monaghan – Construction PM & Programme Manager, Wm Morrison Supermarket


“Clade have proved themselves to be a competent and diligent contractor for Marks and Spencer, their work has been delivered to a high standard with quality being the focus. Their deliver of M&S high profile stores has surpassed performance expectations. Clade has proved itself as a growing contractor with a bright future.”

Peter Garner – Marks & Spencer

CTS Shopfitting Ltd

“We have worked with Clade on numerous Co-op projects throughout many years and find them to be very professional and reliable with excellent communication both on and off site. The project management team work alongside ourselves and are very proactive when required.”

Martyn Clark – CTS Shopfitting Ltd

Key Property Solutions Ltd

“Thank you for the excellent work you did at M-Local Doncaster. It made a refreshing to change to come across a contractor who could adapt to change as speedily as yourselves and reacted pro-actively to anything that was required. I look forward to working with Clade again in the future.”

Lol Johansen – Key Property Solutions Ltd (Bowmer & Kirkland subsidiary)


“Clade Refrigeration (now Clade Engineering Solutions) has worked for The Co-operative Group for over 12 years. In this period they have delivered a large number of projects, some of these being high profile developments which have been installed to a very high standard indeed. Their willingness to help and Give support to the client, associated suppliers and the wider industry is noticeable, whilst they also take the time to give valuable feedback on new innovations and products. They have proved themselves in all instances to be a partner and a contractor that repeatedly delivers to the highest standards.”

Bill Watson – The Co-operative Group


Clade Engineering is able to provide heat pumps as either air, ground, or water source. The most suitable type of heat pump depends on several factors related to your property. Generally, air source heat pumps are the most popular because they have the fewest requirements to install. Any type of heat pump can provide hot water and heating to your building.

Heat pumps using CO2 refrigerant as the heat source are friendly to the environment because the CO2 they use stays contained within the appliance and does not get released into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the CO2 we use in our heat pumps has the lowest global warming potential (GWP) of 1 compared to 1000’s for other refrigerants which will all significantly reduce the carbon footprint of your building.

Clade are the industry leaders in heat pump technology. As the heat in buildings challenge became clearer, Clade began the R&D for a new range of heat pumps which would provide a solution for a growing market. The first heat pump was installed in a Co-Op store and achieved a staggering SCOP of 3.7. We have over 36 years of experience and all of our systems are designed and manufactured in the UK.

Our heat pumps meet environmental standards by using a natural refrigerant like CO2. It has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1, which reduces both cost and emissions.

Clade offers a full start to finish heat pumps solution. Our team of engineers design your system, manufacture and supply your heat pumps from our product range, our installation team ensures your heat pump is fully functional and our after sales support team provides ongoing maintenance. You can pick and choose as many or as few of our services to suit your requirements.We ensure that your heat pump system continues to function. Our heat pumps can generate heat from 50kW to multi mega-watt, with a maximum water temperature of over 80 degrees Celsius and a minimum external air temperature of -20 degrees Celsius. Each of our heat pumps also comes with total cooling recovery to ensure a high quality of continued functionality.


Speak with our team of experts and discuss your requirements. Complete this quick form and we will be in touch or contact us using:

0113 887 9604

Bristol & Bath Science Park
Dirac Crescent, Emersons Green
Bristol, BS16 7FR

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