CO2 Heat Pumps //

Heat Pumps

What Are CO2 Heat Pumps

A heat pump absorbs heat from an ambient temperature source and releases it to a warmer one. It uses an external source, such as air, the ground or water, to transfer energy and it uses a fluid called a refrigerant to facilitate this process. CO2 heat pumps work the same way, by transferring thermal energy, but they use CO2 as the refrigerant fluid. These heat pumps are environmentally friendly because the CO2 they use stays contained within the appliance and doesn’t get released into the atmosphere. Also CO2 is not toxic and only has a GWP (Global Warming Potential) of one much lower than chemical alternatives.

Browse CO2 Heat Pumps

Clade’s CO2 heat pumps reduce carbon emissions while helping you maintain temperature control in your building. Browse our range of sustainable CO2 heat pumps available for various sectors, including agriculture, commercial, data centres, residential, and industrial and manufacturing.


The Rowan is our smaller CO2 heat pump, suitable for lower heat capacities. Its compact design makes it suitable where space is limited. It can be skid mounted with a thermal store or with heat exchangers to reclaim heat from a refrigeration system for example.


The Oak is our mid-scale CO2 heat pump design. It is suitable for continuous operation and at higher heating capacities for large buildings or processes for example; swimming pools, food production, district heating and factories.
Designed and built to be fully serviceable.


The Beech is our largest CO2 heat pump, bespoke designed and manufactured for each project. Up to 1.4MW in a single unit and encompassing ground, air, water source as well as heat reclaim. Installed as separate evaporators and compressor stations with either glycol or refrigerant connections.


The Aspen is our hydrocarbon CO2 heat pump for smaller applications up to 150KW. Aspen is a more affordable low carbon solution for lower flow temperature but still delivering superb low-carbon heat service and a low GWP refrigerant.

Why Invest in a CO2 Heat Pump

When discussing heat pump efficiencies, the following terms are commonly used: coefficient of performance (COP), seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOP) and seasonal performance factor (SPF). The higher the number, the more efficient a heat pump is, the less energy it consumes, and the more cost-effective it is to operate.

Heat pump technology is well established and works well at all scales. Unfortunately the traditional refrigerant fluids used have very high GWP (global warming potential; a multiple of the impact of CO2, with many being over 600). Regulators have already outlawed the use of the really bad refrigerants and are closing the door on the others, leaving a few low GWP and “natural” refrigerants.

Clade are the UK leaders in the natural refrigerant CO2 with the lowest GWP possible of 1. CO2 is also the easiest to maintain and is comparable in cost to R32 but without the flammability or toxic nature.

What’s the difference between CO2 heat pump and atmospheric CO2?

It is easy for confusion to arise, after all how can a CO2 heat pump help reduce CO2 emissions?

Combustion appliances like boilers and fossil fuel engines continuously produce CO2 as a by product of their operation, this CO2 is released into the atmosphere via the flue or exhaust.

By contrast CO2 heat pumps use Carbon Dioxide as the working fluid, the CO2 is contained permanently within the appliance. It is the thermodynamic properties of the expansion and compression of CO2 that enables a heat pump to work.

The CO2 that Clade use is captured as a by-product of other industrial processes. Unlike other natural refrigerants such as; propane which is component of natural gas, or ammonia which is made in a high carbon process.

Other types of heat pump use different working fluids, typically HFCs or HFOs which contribute more to global warming. This contribution is measured using GWP “global warming potential”, CO2 has the lowest possible score of 1.

Using CO2 heat pumps will result in an improvement in carbon reduction both directly in the heat output and indirectly through the production, service and disposal of the working fluid.

Other advantages of CO2 heat pumps include higher operating temperatures which more closely match existing heating systems and enable greater value in heat recovery. This can reduce the cost of the installation and operation of your facility.

CO2 is non toxic and inert which makes the burden of managing the risks lower than other working fluids.

CO2 Heat Pump Services

At Clade, our CO2 heat pump services are comprehensive. We provide full support through every step of the process, from energy-efficient system design to quality manufacturing, expert installation, and ongoing maintenance. As a UK company leading the transformation in green heating and cooling, we provide CO2 heat pumps for multiple sectors, helping businesses reduce their carbon footprint. With different models of CO2 heat pumps available, we can help your company achieve ultra low-carbon, efficient, future-proof heating regardless of its size.. Our commitment to high-quality manufacturing ensures you will have a high performing green heating solution for the long term.


Our CO2 heat pumps are designed for energy efficiency and high performance in both smaller spaces and larger properties.


We provide full installation of your new CO2 heat pump. Our installation team causes as minimal disruption to your property as possible and ensures your heat pump is fully functional before leaving the site.


Clade provides ongoing maintenance for our CO2 heat pumps, which includes regular surveys and repair services. You can customise your support with our After Sales Support packages as well.


High-quality products require high-quality manufacturing. We use precise engineering and the highest quality materials to supply CO2 heat pumps optimised for long-term performance.


Our support services include commissioning engineer attendance, 24/7 service engineering support and access to Clade’s technical helpdesk during the products’ warranty period and beyond.


With its internal Research & Development team based at Clade’s Technology Hub in Leeds the company is available to advise its customers on the latest legislative changes.


“Over the past year TRIOS and Clade Engineering Solutions have worked closely together in delivering service to a range of retail and non-retail customers. Clade has proven to be a reliable partner and demonstrated its ability to react quickly and efficiently to customer requests and problems. Through system usage and great communication Clade has rapidly evolved as a partner of choice to TRIOS. The fact that Clade has both service and installation capabilities has given TRIOS confidence that we can rely on them in every situation, where our customers have a refrigeration or mechanical problem. Clade repeatedly demonstrates its customer focused credentials and continues to give great focus and service to TRIOS and our customers.”

Jeff Alden – Managing Director, Trios Group

Wm. Morrison Supermarkets Plc

“Clade have completed new installations on large stores, and refurbishment work within our main estate, and have many more planned in the future.

Their communication, efficiency and can do attitude make them a key strategic partner in our future within both M-Local and main estate. The key to their success with Morrisons is their transparency, and honesty. Nothing is hidden, and no conversations are off limits, they, as a team, are willing to bring new ideas to the table to make efficiencies, and also accept learnings from other teams to improve themselves.

I have absolutely no qualms in recommending them for any work, and hope that you consider them as the added benefit they can bring is invaluable.”

Tom Monaghan – Construction PM & Programme Manager, Wm Morrison Supermarket


“Clade have proved themselves to be a competent and diligent contractor for Marks and Spencer, their work has been delivered to a high standard with quality being the focus. Their deliver of M&S high profile stores has surpassed performance expectations. Clade has proved itself as a growing contractor with a bright future.”

Peter Garner – Marks & Spencer

CTS Shopfitting Ltd

“We have worked with Clade on numerous Co-op projects throughout many years and find them to be very professional and reliable with excellent communication both on and off site. The project management team work alongside ourselves and are very proactive when required.”

Martyn Clark – CTS Shopfitting Ltd

Key Property Solutions Ltd

“Thank you for the excellent work you did at M-Local Doncaster. It made a refreshing to change to come across a contractor who could adapt to change as speedily as yourselves and reacted pro-actively to anything that was required. I look forward to working with Clade again in the future.”

Lol Johansen – Key Property Solutions Ltd (Bowmer & Kirkland subsidiary)


“Clade Refrigeration (now Clade Engineering Solutions) has worked for The Co-operative Group for over 12 years. In this period they have delivered a large number of projects, some of these being high profile developments which have been installed to a very high standard indeed. Their willingness to help and Give support to the client, associated suppliers and the wider industry is noticeable, whilst they also take the time to give valuable feedback on new innovations and products. They have proved themselves in all instances to be a partner and a contractor that repeatedly delivers to the highest standards.”

Bill Watson – The Co-operative Group